Neonatology is the treatment and care of newborn babies. At Tygerberg Hospital’s neonatal and neonatal ICU wards, this means caring for mothers, newborns and especially prematurely born babies. Tygerberg Hospital treats the most babies under 1500g in the whole of South Africa, making it the premier state centre for premature birth healthcare and studies, with an impact not only in South Africa, but also as a learning institute for the continent and beyond. The unit was also one of the first to employ Kangaroo Mother Care protocols to improve the success rate of preemie babies and also the first hospital in Africa to administer life-saving drugs into the lungs of preterm babies. The unit has been providing high frequency breathing assistance to critically ill babies in 1993 and in 2008 began offering a regular service of cooling down babies (and especially their brains) after birth-related complications.