Karoo farmers and other landowners have partnered with the South African National Parks, the Mountain Zebra Camdeboo Protected Environment (MZCPE), Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) and the SANParks Honorary Rangers to create a Vulture Safe Zone (VSZ) in the Great Karoo. The Karoo VSZ spans across approximately 23,000 square kilometres in and around three major protected areas: namely the Karoo, Camdeboo and Mountain Zebra National Parks as well as the MZCPE. Over ninety percent of this area is privately owned. The long-term goal is to encourage Cape Vultures back to their historical ranges throughout the Great Karoo and ultimately recover this population through the establishment of a VSZ that links key protected areas. During the first phase, the project team will conduct an assessment of current threats in co-operation with over 400 farmers, game breeders and private reserves in the area. Working actively with committed landowners, the threats will be addressed in the second phase. The Karoo VSZ Initiative can be regarded as one of the largest conservation initiatives where farmers partner with conservation organisations like SANParks, SANParks Honorary Rangers, EWT and the ZCPE.